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a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is the unit of inheritance specifying the structure of a protein.

gene flow

the transfer of genes from one population to another; contributes to genetic diversity.

gene frequency
percentage of a certain form of gene within a population in relation to the total forms that could possibly be expressed in genes.
generalized trait
a trait not adapted to a specific environment or niche.
genetic bottleneck
a reduction in the size of a population followed by a large increase in population, resulting in the loss of alleles, lessening the degree of genetic variability.
genetic distance
the measure of how related two or more different populations are to one another based on shared genetic material; can be determined comparing the similarity of allele frequency between populations.
genetic drift

an accidental shift in gene allele frequencies.

all the hereditary information (i.e., genetic make-up) of an organism that is encoded in DNA.

genetic material; the combination of alleles that make up an organism's DNA; entirely hereditary.

in taxonomic classification, describes a group of organisms that all belong to the same family but not to the same species. Populations within the same genus are related but incapable of successful interbreeding.
a rock accidentally shaped by natural processes to resemble an artifact intentionally made by humans.
the science that studies the physical history of the earth, including compositional material and changes over time, and understanding past geologic events.

the period between fertilization of the ovum and birth.

glacial period
a unit of geological time characterized by advances in glaciers or ice sheets.
[syn. Gondwanaland] a supercontinent present in the southern hemisphere during the Paleozoic era that collided with Laurasia to form Pangea; consisted of present day South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, Southeast Asia and Australia.

characterized as being small bodied or has lightly-constructed anatomy; the opposite of robust.

[syn. clade] a group organisms with similar characteristics that may or may not depict evolutionary relationships.
gradistic classification
a way to classify organisms based on grade as opposed to ancestry.
A modified flake with a small, distinct point that may have been used for engraving or carving wood/bone.
greater apes
refers to the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orangutan.