Homo neaderthalensis lived in Western Asia and Europe at the same time as Homo sapiens.

The morphology and brain size of Neanderthals is comparable with modern humans, but certain features of Neanderthal anatomy, such as a large nose and a robust skeleton, may be adaptations to Ice Age climates. Unlike modern humans, Neanderthals have an occipital bun.

Neanderthal burials show evidence of cultural treatment of the dead. H. neanderthalensis was replaced by successive radiations of H. sapiens into Europe. Recent studies suggests that the two species were able to successfully interbreed. The type specimen for H. neanderthalensis is Neanderthal 1 from the Neander Valley in Germany. This specimen dates between 40 Ka and 50 Ka.