Klein 2009

The precise relationship among early hominin ancestors is unclear, though scientific methodologies can help determined the most parsimonious relationships. Since only a very small percentage of the extinct hominin population has been discovered in the fossil record, perhaps as small as >1%, scientists can only construct evolutionary relationships based on their currently knowledge. With each new hominin fossil discovered, the possible evolutionary relationship between species may be reinforced or even change dramatically.

Scientists must consult a wide array of scientific evidence in order to determine which ancestral-descendant relationship is the most likely, though there are many differing opinions. The phylogenies presented here are just a few of the working hypotheses from different authors.  Phylogengies and cladograms are constantly being reworked as more fossil and genetic material becomes available.


References:

  • Johanson and D and Edgar B. 2006. From Lucy to Language: revised, Updated, and Expanded. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Klein RG. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition. University Of Chicago Press.
  • Strait DS and Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodential characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47:399-452.
Johanson & Edgar 2006

The precise relationship among early hominin ancestors is unclear, though scientific methodologies can help determined the most parsimonious relationships. Since only a very small percentage of the extinct hominin population has been discovered in the fossil record, perhaps as small as >1%, scientists can only construct evolutionary relationships based on their currently knowledge. With each new hominin fossil discovered, the possible evolutionary relationship between species may be reinforced or even change dramatically.

Scientists must consult a wide array of scientific evidence in order to determine which ancestral-descendant relationship is the most likely, though there are many differing opinions. The phylogenies presented here are just a few of the working hypotheses from different authors.  Phylogengies and cladograms are constantly being reworked as more fossil and genetic material becomes available.


References:

  • Johanson and D and Edgar B. 2006. From Lucy to Language: revised, Updated, and Expanded. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Klein RG. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition. University Of Chicago Press.
  • Strait DS and Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodential characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47:399-452.
Straight et al 2009

The precise relationship among early hominin ancestors is unclear, though scientific methodologies can help determined the most parsimonious relationships. Since only a very small percentage of the extinct hominin population has been discovered in the fossil record, perhaps as small as >1%, scientists can only construct evolutionary relationships based on their currently knowledge. With each new hominin fossil discovered, the possible evolutionary relationship between species may be reinforced or even change dramatically.

Scientists must consult a wide array of scientific evidence in order to determine which ancestral-descendant relationship is the most likely, though there are many differing opinions. The phylogenies presented here are just a few of the working hypotheses from different authors.  Phylogengies and cladograms are constantly being reworked as more fossil and genetic material becomes available.


References:

  • Johanson and D and Edgar B. 2006. From Lucy to Language: revised, Updated, and Expanded. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Klein RG. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition. University Of Chicago Press.
  • Strait DS and Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodential characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47:399-452.

The precise relationship among early hominin ancestors is unclear, though scientific methodologies can help determined the most parsimonious relationships. Since only a very small percentage of the extinct hominin population has been discovered in the fossil record, perhaps as small as >1%, scientists can only construct evolutionary relationships based on their currently knowledge. With each new hominin fossil discovered, the possible evolutionary relationship between species may be reinforced or even change dramatically.

Scientists must consult a wide array of scientific evidence in order to determine which ancestral-descendant relationship is the most likely, though there are many differing opinions. The phylogenies presented here are just a few of the working hypotheses from different authors.  Phylogengies and cladograms are constantly being reworked as more fossil and genetic material becomes available.


References:

  • Johanson and D and Edgar B. 2006. From Lucy to Language: revised, Updated, and Expanded. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Klein RG. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition. University Of Chicago Press.
  • Strait DS and Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodential characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47:399-452.

The precise relationship among early hominin ancestors is unclear, though scientific methodologies can help determined the most parsimonious relationships. Since only a very small percentage of the extinct hominin population has been discovered in the fossil record, perhaps as small as >1%, scientists can only construct evolutionary relationships based on their currently knowledge. With each new hominin fossil discovered, the possible evolutionary relationship between species may be reinforced or even change dramatically.

Scientists must consult a wide array of scientific evidence in order to determine which ancestral-descendant relationship is the most likely, though there are many differing opinions. The phylogenies presented here are just a few of the working hypotheses from different authors.  Phylogengies and cladograms are constantly being reworked as more fossil and genetic material becomes available.


References:

  • Johanson and D and Edgar B. 2006. From Lucy to Language: revised, Updated, and Expanded. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Klein RG. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition. University Of Chicago Press.
  • Strait DS and Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodential characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47:399-452.